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شرلوک هلمز ساکن ۲۲۱ بی خیابان بیکر - نشانه‌ی چهار؛ چهار حقیقت از زندگی خالق شرلوک هولمز
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نشانه‌ی چهار؛ چهار حقیقت از زندگی خالق شرلوک هولمز
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نوید فرخی/مترجم و پژوهشگر ژانر کارآگاهی

راه ارتباطی در اینستاگرام: sirnavidpersian

«این یادداشت در سه شنبه ۱ خرداد 1397، در صفحه‌ی آخر(صفحه‌ی شانزده) روزنامه شهروند منتشر شد.»


سرآرتور کانن دویل، خالق شرلوک هولمز،159 سال پیش در چنین روزی متولد شد. مخلوق این نویسنده، برای بسیاری فراتر از یک کاراکتر داستانی است زیرا او الگویی را برای زندگی عرضه داشته است. بدون هیچ زیاده‌گویی، در این یادداشت کوتاه به سراغ برخی از حقایق زندگی دکتر کانن دویل می‌روم؛ حقایقی که کمتر مورد اشاره قرار گرفته‌اند.

 

  • اعتقاد به روح گرایی

کانن دویل در بازه‌ای پانزده ساله، همسر، فرزند، سه برادر، یک برادرزاده و یک خواهرزاده‌ی خود را از دست داد که ضربه‌ی روحی بزرگی برایش بود.  او در این مقطع از زندگی، با انجمن‌های احضار روح آشنا شد و حضور در چنین جمع‌هایی را مایه‌ی تسلی خاطرش یافت.  تحت تاثیر چنین جلساتی، او به روح‌گرایی گرایش پیدا کرد(باور به اینکه پس از مرگ، موجودیت آگاهی ادامه می‌یابد و تحت شرایطی امکان تماس با موجودات زنده را داراست). در این اثنا، کانن دویل تعدادی آثار مرتبط با احضار ارواح و ماورالطبیعه نیز نوشت؛ از جمله کتاب جهان پس از مرگ که به فارسی برگردانده شده است.

 

  • کانن دویل به خاطر خلق شرلوک هولمز به لقب شوالیه مفتخر نشد.

در سال 1902، ادوارد هفتم پادشاه بریتانیای کبیر، آرتور کانن دویل را به لقب شوالیه مفتخر کرد. اما به دلیل خلق کاراکتر شرلوک هولمز نبود که دویل به این درجه نائل شد. جنگ بوئر در ابتدای قرن بیستم، انتقادات زیادی را برای حکومت بریتانیا به همراه داشت. بسیاری از چهره‌های سیاسی، اجتماعی و هنری در این باره سیاست‌های بریتانیا رو مورد نکوهش قرار دادند. در این میان، کانن دویل به حمایت از دولت انگلستان در این جنگ پرداخت و مقاله‌ای با عنوان "جنگ در آفریقای جنوبی: علت و نحوه مدیریت" را به رشته‌ی تحریر درآورد. یادداشت وی با تیراژ بالا در سطح جامعه پخش شد. دویل همچنین به عنوان پزشک داوطلب به مدت چهارماه به مناطق جنگی رفت. از این بابت بود که در طی ماه‌های بعد، او مفتخر به کسب لقب شوالیه شد.

 

  • کانن دویل برای خودش یک پا ورزشکار بود

آرتور کانن دویل در طول زندگی خود، سراغ ورزش‌های زیادی رفت. او به عنوان دروازه بان تیم فوتبال پورتموث بازی می‌کرد. کریکت بازی حرفه ای بود و با بازیکنان مشهور این رشته ورزشی هم‌بازی بود. دویل بعد از مسافرت به سوئیس، به توسعه و ترقی رشته اسکی در بریتانیا کمک کرد. همچنین او به گلف نیز علاقه داشت و مدتی به عنوان کاپیتان تیم گلف ساسکس انتخاب شد.

 

  • تحصیل پزشکی و داستان نویسی
کانن دویل از سال 1876 الی 1881 در دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ادینبورگ تحصیل کرد. در این زمان بود که او اولین داستانش را با نام "خانه‌ی ییلاقی پر رفت و آمد گرسترف" نوشت. ازقضا هیچ مجله ای حاضر به چاپ آن نشد. اولین داستان چاپی دویل "معمای دره‌ی ساساسه در آفریقا" نام دارد که در سال 1879 در مجله‌ی چمبر ادینبورگ به چاپ رسید. او همچنین در این سال اولین مقاله‌ی علمی اش را در مورد ریشه‌ی گل یاس در ساخت سم نوشت که در ژورنال پرشکی بریتانیا منتشر شد

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